CARVING A NECK OF VEAL

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The best end of a neck of veal makes a very good roasting-piece; it, however, is composed of bone and ribs that make it quite difficult to carve, unless it is done properly.

To attempt to carve each chop and serve it, you would not only place too large a piece upon the plate of the person you intend to serve, but you would waste much time, and should the vertebrate have not been removed by the butcher, you would be compelled to exercise such a degree of strength that would make one’s appearance very ungraceful, and possibly, too, throwing gravy over your neighbor sitting next to you.

The correct way to carve this roast is to cut diagonally from fig. 1 to 2, and help in slices of moderate thickness; then it may be cut from 3 to 4, in order to separate the small bones; divide and serve them, having first inquired if they are desired.

This joint is usually sent to the table accompanied by bacon, ham, tongue, or pickled pork, on a separate dish and with a cut lemon on a plate. There are also a number of sauces that are suitable with this roast.

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CARVING A FILLET OF VEAL

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A fillet of veal is one of the prime roasts of veal; it is taken from the leg above the knuckle; a piece weighing from ten to twelve pounds is a good size and requires about four hours for roasting. Before roasting, it is dressed with a force meat or stuffing placed in the cavity from where the bone was taken out and the flap tightly secured together with skewers; many bind it together with tape.

To carve it, cut in even thin slices off from the whole of the upper part or top, in the same manner as from a rolled roast of beef, as in the direction of the figs. 1 and 2; this gives the person served some of the dressing with each slice of meat.

Veal is very unwholesome unless it is cooked thoroughly, and when roasted should be of a rich brown color. Bacon, fried pork, sausage-balls, with greens, are among the accompaniments of roasted veal, also a cut lemon.

HOW TO CARVE BREAST OF VEAL

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This piece is quite similar to a fore-quarter of lamb after the shoulder has been taken off. A breast of veal consists of two parts, the rib-bones and the gristly brisket. These parts may be separated by sharply passing the carving knife in the direction of the line from 1 to 2; and when they are entirely divided, the rib-bones should be carved in the direction of the line from 5 to 6, and the brisket can be helped by cutting slices from 3 to 4. The carver should ask the guests whether they have a preference for the brisket or ribs; and if there be a sweetbread served with the dish, as is frequently with this roast of veal, each person should receive a piece. Though veal and lamb contain less nutrition than beef and mutton, in proportion to their weight, they are often preferred to these latter meats on account of their delicacy of texture and flavor. A whole breast of veal weighs from nine to twelve pounds.

HOW TO CARVE A SIRLOIN ROAST BEEF

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This choice roasting-piece should be cut with one good firm stroke from end to end of the joint, at the upper part, in thin, long, even slices in the direction of the line from 1 to 2, cutting across the grain, serving each guest with some of the fat with the lean; this may be done by cutting a small, thin slice from underneath the bone from 5 to 6, through the tenderloin.

Another way of carving this piece, and which will be of great assistance in doing it well, is to insert the knife just above the bone at the bottom, and run sharply along, dividing the meat from the bone at the bottom and end, thus leaving it perfectly flat; then carve in long, thin slices the usual way. When the bone has been removed and the sirloin rolled before it is cooked, it is laid upon the platter on one end, and an even, thin slice is carved across the grain of the upper surface.

Roast ribs should be carved in thin, even slices from the thick end towards the thin in the same manner as the sirloin; this can be more easily and cleanly done if the carving knife is first run along between the meat and the end and rib-bones, thus leaving it free from bone to be cut into slices.

CUTS OF MEAT FOR VENISON

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How to Cook the Different Parts of a Whole Deer

No. 1. Cuts of meat include the shoulder, used for roasting; it may be boned and stuffed, then afterwards baked or roasted.

No. 2. Cuts of meat include the fore-loin, used for roasts and steaks.

No. 3. Cuts of meat include the haunch or loin, used for roasts, steaks, stews. The ribs cut close may be used for soups. Good for pickling and making into smoked venison.

No. 4. Cuts of meat include the breast, used for baking dishes, stewing.

No. 5. Cuts of meat include the scrag or neck, used for soups.

The choice of venison should be judged by the fat, which, when the venison is young, should be thick, clear and close, and the meat a very dark red. The flesh of a female deer about four years old, is the sweetest and best of venison.

Buck venison, which is in season from June to the end of September, is finer than doe venison, which is in season from October to December. Neither should be dressed at any other time of year, and no meat requires so much care as venison in killing, preserving and dressing.

CUTS OF MEAT FOR PORK

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No. 1. Leg, used for smoked hams, roasts and corned pork.

No. 2. Hind-loin, used for roasts, chops and baked dishes.

No. 3. Fore-loin or ribs, used for roasts, baked dishes or chops.

No. 4. Spare-rib, used for roasts, chops, stews.

No. 5. Shoulder, used for smoked shoulder, roasts and corned pork.

No. 6. Brisket and flank, used for pickling in salt and smoked bacon.

The cheek is used for pickling in salt, also the shank or shin. The feet are usually used for souse and jelly.

For family-use the leg is the most economical, that is when fresh, and the loin the richest. The best pork is from carcasses weighing from fifty to about one hundred and twenty-five pounds. Pork is a white and close meat, and it is almost impossible to over-roast or cook it too much; when underdone it is exceedingly dangerous and you could end up with tape worm.

CUTS OF MEAT FOR MUTTON (LAMB)

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No. 1. Cuts of meat include the leg, used for roasts and for boiling.

No. 2. Cuts of meat include the shoulder, used for baked dishes and roasts.

No. 3. Cuts of meat include the loin, best end used for roasts, chops.

No. 4. Cuts of meat include the loin, chump-end used for roasts and chops.

No. 5. Cuts of meat include the rack, or rib chops, used for French chops, rib chops, either for frying or broiling; also used for choice stews.

No. 6. Cuts of meat include the breast, used for roast, baked dishes, stews, chops.

No. 7. Cuts of meat include neck or scrag-end, used for cutlets, stews and meat-pies.

NOTE.—A saddle of mutton or double loin is two loins cut off before the carcass is split open down the back. French chops are a small rib chop, the end of the bone trimmed off and the meat and fat cut away from the thin end, leaving the round piece of meat attached to the larger end, which leaves the small rib-bone bare. Very tender and sweet.

Mutton is prime when cut from a carcass which has been fed out of doors, and allowed to run upon the hillside; they are best when about three years old. The fat will then be abundant, white and hard, the flesh juicy and firm, and of a clear red color.

For mutton roasts, choose the shoulder, the saddle, or the loin or haunch. The leg should be boiled. Almost any part will do for broth.

Lamb born in the middle of the winter, reared under shelter, and fed in a great measure upon milk, then killed in the spring, is considered a great delicacy, though lamb is good at a year old. Like all young animals, lamb ought to be thoroughly cooked, or it is most unwholesome.

CUTS OF MEAT FOR VEAL

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CUTS OF MEAT FOR VEAL HIND-QUARTER

No. 1. Cuts of meat include the loin, the choicest cuts used for roasts and chops.

No. 2. Cuts of meat include the fillet, used for roasts and cutlets.

No. 3. Cuts of meat include the loin, chump-end used for roasts and chops.

No. 4. Cuts of meat include the hind-knuckle or hock, used for stews, pot-pies, meat-pies.

CUTS OF MEAT FOR VEAL FORE-QUARTER

No. 5. Cuts of meat include the neck, best end used for roasts, stews and chops.

No. 6. Cuts of meat include the breast, best end used for roasting, stews and chops.

No. 7. Cuts of meat include the blade-bone, used for pot-roasts and baked dishes.

No. 8. Cuts of meat include the fore-knuckle, used for soups and stews.

No. 9. Cuts of meat include the breast, brisket-end used for baking, stews and pot-pies.

No. 10. Cuts of meat include the neck, scrag-end used for stews, broth, meat-pies, etc.

In cutting up veal, generally, the hind-quarter is divided into loin and leg, and the fore-quarter into breast, neck and shoulder.

The Several Parts of a Moderately-sized, Well-fed Calf, about eight weeks old, are nearly of the following weights:—Loin and chump, 18 lbs.; fillet, 12 lbs.; hind-knuckle, 5 lbs.; shoulder, 11 lbs.; neck, 11 lbs.; breast, 9 lbs., and fore-knuckle, 5 lbs.; making a total of 144 lbs. weight.

CUTS OF MEAT for BEEF

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CUTS OF MEAT for BEEF HIND-QUARTER

No. 1. Loin, used for choice roasts, the porterhouse and sirloin steaks.

No. 2. Rump, used for steaks, stews and corned beef.

No. 3. Aitch-bone, used for boiling-pieces, stews and pot roasts.

No. 4. Buttock or round, used for steaks, pot roasts, beef a la mode; also a prime boiling-piece.

No. 5. Mouse-round, used for boiling and stewing.

No. 6. Shin or leg, used for soups, hashes, etc.

No. 7. Thick flank, cut with under fat, is a prime boiling-piece, good for stews and corned beef, pressed beef.

No. 8. Veiny piece, used for corned beef, dried beef.

No. 9. Thin flank, used for corned beef and boiling-pieces.

CUTS OF MEAT FOR BEEF FORE-QUARTER

No. 10. Five ribs called the fore-rib. This is considered the primest piece for roasting; also makes the finest steaks.

No. 11. Four ribs, called the middle ribs, used for roasting.

No. 12. Chuck ribs, used for second quality of roasts and steaks.

No. 13. Brisket, used for corned beef, stews, soups and spiced beef.

No. 14. Shoulder-piece, used for stews, soups, pot-roasts, mince-meat and hashes.

Nos. 15, 16. Neck, clod or sticking-piece used for stocks, gravies, soups, mince-pie meat, hashes, bologna sausages, etc.

No. 17. Shin or shank, which is cut from either the leg or the shoulder as a lot of muscle and so therefore used mostly for soups and stewing.

No. 18. Cheek.

The following is a classification of the qualities of cuts of meat, according to the several joints of beef, when cut up.

First Class — Cuts of meat include the sirloin with the kidney suet (1), the rump steak piece (2), the fore-rib (11).

Second Class — Cuts of meat include the buttock or round (4), the thick flank (7), the middle ribs (11).

Third Class — Cuts of meat include the aitch-bone (3), the mouse-round (5), the thin flank (8, 9), the chuck (12), the shoulder-piece (14), the brisket (13).

Fourth Class — Cuts of meat include the clod, neck and sticking-piece (15, 16).

Fifth Class — Cuts of meat include the shin or shank (17).