Perfect Apple Pie (Mom’s Recipe)

My mom baked this apple pie many times using the apples she grew in her backyard.

Maple-Apple Pie

 

Ingredients

6-8 Tart Apples, pared, cored, and thinly sliced (6 cups)

1 Cup Sugar

2 Tbsp Flour

1 tsp Ground Cinnamon

Dash Ground Nutmeg

Pastry for 2 crust 9-inch pie

2 Tbsp Butter

Directions

If apples lack tartness, sprinkle with about 1 tablespoon of lemon juice.  Combine sugar, flour, spices and dash salt; mix with apples.

Line 9-inch pie plate with pastry.  Fill with apple mixture; dot with butter.  Adjust top crust, cutting slits for escape of steam; seal.  Sprinkle with sugar.

Bake at 400 degrees F for 50 minutes or until done.

Get ready for the most wonderful aroma to drift throughout your home.

Serve with Blue Bell Vanilla Ice Cream and Redi Whip.

 

Edible Oils

Major oils

These oils make up a significant fraction of worldwide edible oil production. All are also used as fuel oils.

  • Coconut oil, a cooking oil, with medical and industrial applications as well. Extracted from the kernel or meat of the fruit of the coconut palm. Common in the tropics, and unusual in composition, with medium chain fatty acids , Vegetable Oil one of the principal oils sold as salad and cooking oil.
  • Cottonseed oil, used as a salad and cooking oil, both domestically and industrially.
  • Olive oil, used in cooking, cosmetics,soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps.
  • Palm oil, the most widely produced tropical Popular in West African and Brazilian cuisine. Also used to make biofuel.
  • Peanut oil(Ground nut oil), a clear oil with some applications as a salad dressing, and, due to its high smoke point, especially used for frying.
  • Rapeseed oil, including Canola oil, one of the most widely used cooking oils.
  • Safflower oil, until the 1960’s used in the paint industry, now mostly as a cooking oil.
  • Sesame oil, cold pressed as light cooking oil, hot pressed for a darker and stronger flavor.
  • Soybean oil, produced as a byproduct of processing soy meal.
  • Sunflower oil, a common cooking oil, also used to make biodiesel.

Nut oils

Nut oils are generally used in cooking, for their flavor. Most are quite costly, because of the difficulty of extracting the oil.

  • Almond oil, used as an edible oil, but primarily in the manufacture of cosmetics.
  • Beechnut oil, from Fagus sylvatica nuts, is a well-regarded edible oil in Europe, used for salads and cooking.
  • Brazil nut oil contains 75% unsaturated fatty acids composed mainly of oleic and linolenic acids, as well as the phytosterol, beta-sitosterol, and fat-soluble vitamin E.  Extra virgin oil can be obtained during the first pressing of the nuts, possibly for use as a substitute for olive oil due to its mild, pleasant flavor.
  • Cashew oil, somewhat comparable to olive oil. May have value for fighting dental cavities.
  • Hazelnut oil, mainly used for its flavor. Also used in skin care, because of its slight astringent
  • Macadamia oil, with a mild nutty flavor and a high smoke point.
  • Mongongo nutoil (or manketti oil), from the seeds of the Schinziophyton rautanenii, a tree which grows in South Africa. High in vitamin E. Also used in skin care.
  • Pecan oil, valued as a food oil, but requiring fresh pecans for good quality oil.
  • Pine nut oil, sold as a gourmet cooking oil, and of potential medicinal interest as an appetite suppressant.
  • Pistachio oil, a strongly flavored oil with a distinctive green color.
  • Walnut oil, used for its flavor, also used by Renaissance painters in oil paints.

Citrus oils

A number of citrus plants yield pressed oils. Some, such as lemon and orange oil, are used as essential oils, which is uncommon for pressed oils. The seeds of many if not most members of the citrus family yield usable oils.

  • Grapefruit seed oil, extracted from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi). Grapefruit seed oil was extracted experimentally in 1930 and was shown to be suitable for making soap.
  • Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. One of a small number of cold pressed essential oils.  Used as a flavoring agent and in aromatherapy.
  • Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled.  Consists of 90% d-Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods.

The fruit of the sea-buckhorn 

Oils from melon and gourd seeds

Watermelon seed oil, extracted from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris, is used in cooking in West Africa.

Members of the Cucurbitaceae include gourds, melons, pumpkins, and squashes. Seeds from these plants are noted for their oil content, but little information is available on methods of extracting the oil. In most cases, the plants are grown as food, with dietary use of the oils as a byproduct of using the seeds as food.[43]

  • Bitter gourd oil, from the seeds ofMomordica charantia. High in α-Eleostearic acid. Of current research interest for its potential anti-carcinogenic properties.
  • Bottle gourd oil, extracted from the seeds of theLagenaria siceraria, widely grown in tropical regions. Used as an edible oil.
  • Buffalo gourd oil, from the seeds of theCucurbita foetidissima, a vine with a rank odor, native to southwest North America.
  • Butternut squash seed oil, from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata, has a nutty flavor that is used for salad dressings, marinades, and sautéeing.
  • Egusi seed oil, from the seeds of Cucumeropsis mannii naudin, is particularly rich in linoleic acid.
  • Pumpkin seed oil, a specialty cooking oil, produced in Austria, Slovenia and Croatia. Used mostly in salad dressings.
  • Watermelon seed oil, pressed from the seeds of Citrullus vulgaris. Traditionally used in cooking in West Africa.

Food supplements

A number of oils are used as food supplements (or “nutraceuticals”), for their nutrient content or purported medicinal effect. Borage seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, and evening primrose oil all have a significant amount of gamma-Linolenic acid (GLA) (about 23%, 15–20% and 7–10%, respectively), and it is this that has drawn the interest of researchers.

  • Açaí oil, from the fruit of several species of the Açaí palm (Euterpe) grown in the Amazon
  • Black seed oil, pressed from Nigella sativa seeds, has a long history of medicinal use, including in ancient Greek, Asian, and Islamic medicine, as well as being a topic of current medical research.
  • Blackcurrant seed oil, from the seeds ofRibes nigrum, used as a food supplement. High in gamma-Linolenic, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
  • Borage seed oil, from the seeds ofBorago officinalis.
  • Evening primrose oil, from the seeds of Oenothera biennis, the most important plant source of gamma-Linolenic acid, particularly because it does not contain alpha-Linolenic acid.
  • Flaxseed oil (called linseed oil when used as a drying oil), from the seeds of Linum usitatissimum. High in omega-3 and lignans, which can be used medicinally. A good dietary equivalent to fish oil. Easily turns rancid. 

Other edible oils

  • Amaranth oil, from the seeds of grainamaranth species, including Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus, high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids.
  • Apricot oil, similar to almond oil, which it resembles. Used in cosmetics.
  • Apple seed oil, high in linoleic acid.
  • Argan oil, from the seeds of the Argania spinosa, is a food oil from Morocco developed through a women’s cooperative founded in the 1990s, that has also attracted recent attention in Europe.
  • Avocado oil, an edible oil used primarily in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical Industry.  Unusually high smoke point of 510 °F.
  • Babassu oil, from the seeds of the Attalea speciosa, is similar to, and used as a substitute for, coconut oil.
  • Ben oil, extracted from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera. High in behenic acid. Extremely stable edible oil. Also suitable for biofuel.
  • Borneo tallow nut oil, extracted from the fruit of species of genus Shorea. Used as a substitute for cocoa butter, and to make soap, candles, cosmetics and medicines in places where the tree is common.
  • Cape chestnut oil, also called yangu oil, is a popular oil in Africa for skin care.
  • Carob pod oil(Algaroba oil), from carob, with an exceptionally high essential fatty acid
  • Cocoa butter, from the cacao plant, is used in the manufacture of chocolate, as well as in some ointments and cosmetics; sometimes known as theobroma oil
  • Cocklebur oil, from species of genus Xanthium, with similar properties to poppyseed oil, similar in taste and smell to sunflower oil.
  • Cohune oil, from the Attalea cohune (cohune palm) used as a lubricant, for cooking, soapmaking and as a lamp oil.
  • Coriander seed oil, from coriander seeds, used in a wide variety of flavoring applications, including gin and seasoning  Recent research has shown promise for use in killing food-borne bacteria, such as E. coli.
  • Date seed oil, extracted from date.   Its low extraction rate and lack of other distinguishing characteristics make it an unlikely candidate for major use.
  • Dika oil, from Irvingia gabonensis seeds, native to West Africa. Used to make margarine, soap and pharmaceuticals, where is it being examined as a tablet lubricant. Largely underdeveloped.
  • False flax oil made of the seeds of Camelina sativa. One of the earliest oil crops, dating back to the 6th millennium B.C. Produced in modern times in Central and Eastern Europe; fell out of production in the 1940s. Considered promising as a food or fuel oil.
  • Grape seed oil, a cooking and salad oil, also sprayed on raisins to help them retain their flavor.
  • Hemp oil, a high quality food oil also used to make paints, varnishes, resins and soft soaps.
  • Kapok seed oil, from the seeds of Ceiba pentandra, used as an edible oil, and in soap production.
  • Kenaf seed oil, from the seeds of Hibiscus cannabinus. An edible oil similar to cottonseed oil, with a long history of use.
  • Lallemantia oil, from the seeds of Lallemantia iberica, discovered at archaeological sites in northern Greece.
  • Mafura oil, extracted from the seeds of Trichilia emetica. Used as an edible oil in Ethiopia. Mafura butter, extracted as part of the same process when extracting the oil, is not edible, and is used in soap and candle making, as a body ointment, as fuel, and medicinally.
  • Marula oil, extracted from the kernel of Sclerocarya birrea. Used as an edible oil with a light, nutty flavor. Also used in soaps. Fatty acid composition is similar to that of olive oil.
  • Meadowfoam seed oil, highly stable oil, with over 98% long-chain fatty acids. Competes with rapeseed oil for industrial applications.
  • Mustard oil(pressed), used in India as a cooking oil. Also used as a massage
  • Niger seed oil is obtained from the edible seeds of the Niger plant, which belongs to the Asteraceae family and of the Guizotia  The botanical name of the plant is Guizotia abyssinica. Cultivation for the plant originated in the Ethiopian highlands, and has since spread from Malawi to India.
  • Nutmeg butter, extracted by expression from the fruit of cogeners of genus Myristica. Nutmeg butter has a large amount of trimyristin. Nutmeg oil, by contrast, is an essential oil, extracted by steam distillation.
  • Okra seed oil, from Abelmoschus esculentus. Composed predominantly of oleic and linoleic acids. The greenish yellow edible oil has a pleasant taste and odor.
  • Papaya seed oil, high in omega-3 and omega-6, similar in composition to olive oil. Not to be confused with papaya oil produced by maceration.
  • Perilla seed oil, high inomega-3 fatty acids. Used as an edible oil, for medicinal purposes in Asian herbal medicine, in skin care products and as a drying oil.
  • Persimmon seed oil, extracted from the seeds of Diospyros virginiana. Dark, reddish brown color, similar in taste to olive oil. Nearly equal content of oleic and linoleic acids.
  • Pequi oil, extracted from the seeds of Caryocar brasiliense. Used in Brazil as a highly prized cooking oil.
  • Pili nut oil, extracted from the seeds of Canarium ovatum. Used in the Philippines as an edible oil, as well as for a lamp oil.
  • Pomegranate seed oil, from Punica granatum seeds, is very high in punicic acid (which takes its name from pomegranates). A topic of current medical research for treating and preventing cancer.
  • Poppyseed oil, long used for cooking, in paints, varnishes, and soaps.
  • Pracaxi oil, extracted from the seeds of Pentaclethra macroloba. Similar to peanut oil, but has a high concentration of behenic acid (19%).

Virgin pracaxi oil

  • Prune kernel oil, marketed as a gourmet cooking oil Similar in composition to peach kernel oil.
  • Quinoa oil, similar in composition and use to corn oil.
  • Ramtil oil, pressed from the seeds of the one of several species of genus Guizotia abyssinica (Niger pea) in India and Ethiopia.
  • Rice bran oil is a highly stable cooking and salad oil, suitable for high-temperature cooking. It also has potential as a biofuel.
  • Royle oil, pressed from the seeds of Prinsepia utilis, a wild, edible oil shrub that grows in the higher Himalayas. Used medicinally in Nepal.
  • Sacha inchi oil, from thePeruvian Amazon. High in behenic, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
  • Sapote oil, used as a cooking oil in Guatemala.
  • Seje oil, from the seeds of Jessenia bataua. Used in South America as an edible oil, similar to olive oil, as well as for soaps and in the cosmetics
  • Shea butter, much of which is produced by poor, African women. Used primarily in skin care products and as a substitute for cocoa butter in confections and cosmetics.
  • Taramira oil, from the seeds of the arugula (Eruca sativa), grown in West Asia and Northern India. Used as a (pungent) edible oil after aging to remove acridity.
  • Tea seed oil(Camellia oil), widely used in southern China as a cooking oil. Also used in making soaps, hair oils and a variety of other products.
  • Thistle oil, pressed from the seeds ofSilybum marianum. A good potential source of special fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, phenol compounds and natural anti-oxidants, as well as for generally improving the nutritional value of foods.
  • Tigernut oil (or nut-sedge oil) is pressed from the tuber of Cyperus esculentus. It has properties similar to soybean, sunflower and rapeseed oils. It is used in cooking and making soap and has potential as a biodiesel fuel.
  • Tobacco seed oil, from the seeds of Nicotiana tabacum and other Nicotiana  Edible if purified.
  • Tomato seed oil is a potentially valuable by-product, as a cooking oil, from the waste seeds generated from processing tomatoes.
  • Wheat germ oil, used nutritionally and in cosmetic preparations, high in vitamin E and octacosanol.

 

Choosing Fat for Taste or Health

When it comes to cooking with oils, do you have to choose between cooking for

taste or cooking for health? People have strong opinions about what’s best.

Health Hub sat down recently to chat about cooking with oils with James D. Perko, CEC, AAC, Executive Chef for Cleveland Clinic’s Wellness Institute and its Center for Lifestyle Medicine and nutritionist Katherine Patton, MEd, RD, CSSD, LD.

Here are seven takeaways — including a couple of cooking tips — from the conversation:

  1. All cooking oils are equal when you’re measuring calories

Regardless of what kind of oil you use, oil is classified nutritionally as a fat. At nine calories per gram, fats are far more calorie-dense than carbohydrates or protein, both of which have four calories per gram. Taste could help to shape your answer to which oil to use in cooking. But even oils billed as healthier, such as avocado, are fats. Consider how much fat you want to eat and then add it wisely.

  1. All cooking oils are not equal when you’re measuring their effect on health

When choosing cooking oil, consider extra-virgin olive oil for heart health. It has the lowest oxidation rate of cooking oils. Oxidation promotes free radicals, chemicals that are highly reactive and have the potential to damage cells, including damage that may lead to cancer.

Olive oil also can help lower your LDL (bad cholesterol) and raise your good HDL levels.

Extra virgin olive oil has an amazing skin- and body-protecting polyphenol called hydroxytyrosol. Studies show that hydroxytyrosol has among the greatest free-radical absorbing capacities.

Olive oil also contains beta carotene, and vitamins A, E, D and K and many more healthful nutrients. Research shows these nutrients have beneficial effects on almost every bodily function.

  1. It’s best to consider your diet as a whole and to not focus on a single nutrient such as oil.

The problem with restrictive diets that cut out single nutrients is that when they cut fat, they add sugar to compensate for the loss in taste.  It’s good to consider the entire universe of everything you eat and aim for a nutritionally balanced mix that includes a small amount of healthy fats.

  1. Sauté or fry?

Pan-frying at home is a cooking technique that uses a larger amount of oil and high heat for a longer period of time. Deep fat frying also uses a lot of oil at high heats but can be for a shorter period of time as in thin cut shoe string french fries. Unfortunately, frying foods in oil – or any kind of fat – promotes free radicals.

With sautéing, generally, small pieces of food are cooked in small amounts of fat for a shorter period of time. No matter which oil you choose, use as little as possible. Planning meals with foods that do not require frying and instead can be baked, grilled or quickly sautéed is a good first step in cutting back on oils.

  1. Make sure your oil is fresh

Old oil is a harbor for free radicals. When you buy many different varieties of oil for different recipes, then store them for long periods in your kitchen, the oils oxidize over time and develop free radicals. Instead, buy just a few kinds of oil in small amounts and store them in a cold, dry place.

  1. Spray oil is not always what it seems

Many spray oils claim to have zero trans-fat. They can say so because manufacturers can round down the trans-fat to zero if a serving size is less than a half of a gram — and many manufacturers list a serving size of spray oil as a quarter-second spray. But why mess around with sprays when you can get the same result by simply dipping a towel in oil and wiping the bottom of your pan.

Or try a PFOA-free non-stick or ceramic pan. Be sure to always hand wash the PFOA–free non stick or ceramic pans with a soft non-abrasive sponge or cloth to protect the surface and keep them in good shape.

  1. Be smart about using oil

If you’re eating healthy fats by dunking your ciabatta bread in olive oil or frying foods in canola, you aren’t getting the biggest bang for the buck. Use oil instead to extract, extend and infuse flavors or create new ones.

For example, instead of using a few tablespoons of olive oil merely to moisturize a piece of bread for one person, you can use the same amount in a flavorful dish

Cooking Oils and Smoking Points

 

Cooking Oils and Smoking Points

Not all fats are the same.  The more refined an oil, the higher the smoke point.  That’s because refining removes the impurities that can cause the oil to smoke.  Did you know that a fat is no longer good for consumption after it has exceeded its smoke point and has begun to break down?

 

Saturated Fats:

Saturated fats are mainly animal fats and are solid at room temperature.  These fats include butter, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, egg yolks, lard and fatty meats.  Some plants fats are also high in saturated fats such as coconut oil and palm oils.  Saturated fats raise blood cholesterol more than any other food you eat.  By using the right oils and fats for the right reasons, you can preserve the healthful benefits.  Your foods will not only taste their best, but also be healthy.

 

Unsaturated Fats:

These fats can come from both animal and plant products.  There are three (3) types:

Monounsaturated Fats – Usually come from seeds or nuts such as avocado, olive, peanut, and canola oils. These fats are liquid at room temperature.

Polyunsaturated Fats – Usually come from vegetables, seeds, or nuts such as corn, safflower, sunflower, soybean, cotton seed, and sesame seeds oils. These fats are liquid at room temperature.

Trans Fatty Acids – Trans fats are produced when liquid oil is made into a solid fat, such as shortening or margarine. This process is called hydrogenation. Trans fats act like saturated fats and can raise your cholesterol level.

Smoking Points of Fats and Oils:

Based on the above classification, the ideal cooking oil should contain higher amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, with a minimal or no saturated fats and trans fats.  Different fats and oils have different uses.  Each performs best within a certain range of temperature. Some are made for high heat cooking, while others have intense flavors that are best enjoyed by drizzling directly on food.

The smoke point of an oil or fat is the temperature at which it gives off smoke.  The smoke point of oil depends to a very large extent on its purity and age at the time of measurement.  A simple rule of thumb is that the lighter the color of the oil, the higher its smoke point.  When frying, it is important to choose an oil with a very high smoking point.  Most foods are fried between the temperatures of 350-450 degrees Fahrenheit so it is best to choose an oil with a smoking point above 400 degrees.

 

 

Fats or oils Description Cooking Uses Types of Fat Smoke Point Fahrenheit smoke Point Celsius
Almond Oil Has a subtle toasted almond aroma and flavor. Used in sauce and stir fry for Asian foods. Monounsaturated 420 216
Avocado Oil Vibrant green in color with a soft nutty taste and mild avocado aroma. This is a very healthy oil with a profile similar to olive oil. this oil can be used for very high temperature applications. Stir frying, searing Monounsaturated 520 271
Butter Whole butter is a mix of fats, milk solids, and moisture derived by churning cream until the oil droplets stick together and can be separated out. Baking, cooking Saturated 350 177
Butter, (Ghee) clarified Ghee has a higher smoke point than butter since clarification eliminated the milk solids (which burn at lower temps). Frying, sautéing Saturated 375-485 (depending on purity) 190-250 (depending on purity)
Canola Oil (rapeseed oil) A light, golden-colored oil. Good all-purpose oil . Used in salads and cooking. Monounsaturated 400 204
Coconut Oil A heavy nearly colorless oil extracted from fresh coconuts. coatings, confectionary, shortening Saturated 350 177
Corn Oil A mild medium-yellow color refined oil. Made from the germ of the corn kernel. Frying, salad dressings, shortening Polyunsaturated 450 232
Cottonseed Oil Pale-yellow oil that is extracted from the seed of the cotton plant. Margarine, salad dressings, shortening. Also used for frying. Polyunsaturated 420 216
Grapeseed Oil Light, medium-yellow oil that is a by-product of wine making. Excellent choice of cooking oil for sautéing or frying. Also used in salad dressings. Polyunsaturated 392 200
Hazelnut Oil The nuts are ground and roasted and then pressed in a hydraulic press to extract the delicate oil. Salad dressings, marinades and baked goods. Monounsaturated 430 221
Lard The white solid or semi-solid rendered fat of a hog. This was once the most popular cooking and baking fat, but has been replaced by vegetable shortenings. baking and frying Saturated 370 182
Macadamia Nut Oil This oil is cold pressed from the decadent macadamia nut, extracting a light oil similar in quality to the finest extra virgin olive oil. Sauté, pan fry, sear, deep fry, stir fry, grill, broil, baking. Monounsaturated 390 199
Olive Oil Oils varying weight and may be pale yellow to deep green depending on fruit used and processing. Cooking, salad dressings, sauté, pan fry, sear, deep fry, stir fry, grill, broil, baking Monounsaturated Extra Virgin-320
Virgin – 420
Pomace – 460
Extra Light – 468
160
216
238
242
Palm Oil A yellowish-orange fatty oil obtained especially from the crushed nuts of an African palm. Cooking, flavoring Saturated 466 230
Peanut Oil Pale yellow refined oil with a very subtle scent and flavor. Made from pressed steam-cooked peanuts. used primarily Asian cooking. Frying, cooking, salad dressings Monounsaturated 450 232
Rice Bran Oil Produced from the rice bran, which is removed from the grain of rice as it is processed. Frying, sauté, salad dressings, baking, dipping oil Monounsaturated 490 254
Safflower Oil A golden color with a light texture. Made from the seeds of safflowers. Margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressings Polyunsaturated 450 232
Sesame Oil Comes in two types – a light very mild Middle Eastern type and a darker Asian type pressed from toasted sesame seeds. Cooking, salad dressings Polyunsaturated 410 232
Shortening, Vegetable Blended oil solidified using various processes, including whipping in air and hydrogenation. May have real or artificial butter flavor added. Baking, frying Saturated 360 182
Soybean Oil A fairly heavy oil with a pronounced flavor and aroma. Margarine, salad dressings, shortening Polyunsaturated 450 232
Sunflower Oil A light odorless and nearly flavorless oil pressed from sunflower seeds. Pale yellow. Cooking, margarine, salad dressings, shortening Polyunsaturated 450 232
Vegetable Oil Made by blending several different refined oils. Designed to have a mild flavor and a high smoke point. Cooking, salad dressings Polyunsaturated
Walnut Oil Medium-yellow oil with a nutty flavor and aroma. More perishable than most other oils Sauté, pan fry, sear, deep fry, stir fry, grill, broil Monounsaturated 400 204

 

Re-using Cooking Oils

I, personally, never reuse cooking oils. The foods you cook the oils in will cause the oils to go rancid faster.

A recent study found that a toxin called 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) forms when such oils as canola, corn, soybean and sunflower oils are reheated.  Consumption of foods containing HNE from cooking oils has been associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease, stroke, Parkinson’?s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, various liver disorders, and cancer.  Once absorbed in the body, HNE reacts with DNA, RNA and proteins affecting basic cellular processes.


That being said:

Reusing cooking oil has been done for ages.  There really isn’t a problem, if done properly.  The greatest hazard is allowing the fat to become rancid (spoiled) and deteriorated to the point it produces undesirable flavors and odors.  Besides ruining what would have been a perfectly good meal, rancid oils also contain free radicals that are potentially carcinogenic.  Rancid oil has fewer antioxidants but is not poisonous.

 

To re-use oil safely, use these tips:

  • Strain it through a few layers of cheesecloth to catch any food particles.  Be careful with hot oil, though, because you can easily get burned.
  • Shake off excess batter from food before frying it.
  • Use a good thermometer to fry foods at 190°C.
  • Turn off the heat after you are done cooking.  Exposing oil to prolonged heat accelerates rancidity.
  • Don’t mix different types of oil.
  • Store oil in a cool, dark place.
  • Avoid iron or copper pots or pans for frying oil that is to be reused.  These metals also accelerate rancidity.

 

Signs of Deteriorated Oil:

  • Oil darkens with use because the oil and food molecules burn when subjected to high/prolonged heat.
  • The more you use an oil, the more slowly it will pour.  Its viscosity changes because of changes to the oil’s molecular structure.
  • Loose absorbent particles accumulate as sediment at the bottom of the storage container or are suspended in the oil.
  • When smoke appears on the oils’ surface before the temperature reaches 190 degrees C (375 degrees F), your oil will no longer deep-fry effectively.
  • If the oil has a rancid or “off” smell or if it smells like the foods you’ve cooked in it, it should be discarded.

 

 

Sources:

Harvard School of Public Health.

Hormel Foods.

Spectrum Oils.

The Culinary Institute of America (1996). The New Professional Chef, 6th edition, John Wiley & Sons